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PlantAKiss

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<span style='color:blue'><span style='font-size:11pt;line-height:100%'>How to Pollinate a Sarracenia Flower</span></span>
 
<span style='color:red'>By Brooks Garcia</span>
 
This is a rather simple procedure but certain precautions need to be taken to insure that: 1) You are successful and 2) You avoid possible contamination from unwanted pollen. Timing is the key here especially if you want to cross species that typically do not bloom at the same time ( i.e. flava x psittacina). With practice and keen observation you will be able to gauge when a flower needs to be protected and when to transfer the pollen.
 
<span style='color:red'>Necessary Equipment</span>
 
* Light weight fabric or tulle/bridal veil netting
* Light weight string
* Thin stakes (if needed)
* Q-tips
* Masking tape
* Sharpie permanent marker
* Scissors
SuppliesNeededRS.jpg

Photo 1- Tools You Need

<span style='color:red'>Flower Structure</span>
 
We need to discuss the flower structure before hand so you can be familiar with the flower parts and how they function.

PlantInFlowerRS.jpg

Photo 2 - Sarracenia in Flower

Sarracenias are designed to prevent self pollination by their very structure. The petals are the colorful parts that attract bees and protect the pollen inside the flower from rain and wind.  The anthers produce the pollen and are in the "roof" of the flower and drop pollen onto the style. The style is the upside-down umbrella that has the 5 stigma (female receptors) and catches the pollen.  The stigmas are the 'hooks' or slight protrusions on the points of the style which are outside the flower away from the pollen. A bee lands on the sepals (stiff, petal-like structures), crawls down the petals and enters the flower by crossing over the points on the style between the petals thus getting pollen from a previously visited flower on the stigma. The bee gathers the nectar in the flower getting this flower's pollen on its body and exits the flower through the "dip" in the style and under the petal thus avoiding getting pollen on the stigmas. Look at a flower closely or pull one apart to understand these dynamics.
FlowerPartsRS.jpg

Photo 3 - Flower Parts
 
<span style='color:red'>Step One: Protecting the Flower</span>
 
You will need to visit a fabric store and buy a tight-knit, light-weight fabric or tulle/ bridal veil netting. Light weight is very important because you don't want your flower stalk bending under the weight of wet material after a rain. Staking the flower stalk is an option as well on weak-stemmed species like rubras. The netting will only be needed until the pollen has been set and until shortly after the petals have fallen off. Then the netting can be removed. This is where keen observation is handy but err on the side of caution and "bag" your flower before the petals have fully opened. How will you know? The petals will still be cupped close to the style. Photo 4 shows the flower fully open and at this point on this particular flower, the pollen has begun to drop onto the style. It should have been bagged sooner.
OpenFlowerRS.jpg

Photo 4 - Flower Fully Open

The style is the five lobed structure that is the bottom of the flower. This contains the female parts of the flower, 5 stigma in all. On the smaller species (rubras and psittacinas), the flowers are going to be quite small and two people maybe needed to carry this out; a small artist's paint brush maybe a better tool than a Q-tip for gathering and transferring pollen. Cut a large enough square of netting to cover the flower loosely and be tied with the string. I start at the back of the flower and tuck the fabric between the stem and the back of the sepals. The sepals are the stiff parts that are left after the petals drop. Then wrap the flower loosely and tie it off until you are ready to pollinate the flower.
baggingcomp.jpg

Photo 5 - Bagging Procedure

After each pollination session, secure the netting until the petals have dropped and the flower tilts upward.
 
<span style='color:red'>Step Two: Collecting Pollen and Cross Pollination</span>
 
You will need to check the flower every day to see if the pollen has developed and begun to drop onto the style from the anthers. It will look like small pale yellow particles. Pollen will drop for several days up to a week and can be gathered off the anthers if necessary. The anthers, the male parts, are in the top of the flower inside under the petals. Untie the netting and carefully unwrap the flower. Take a Q-tip and very carefully lift a petal.
LiftedPetalRS.jpg

Photo 6 - Lifting Petal to Expose Flower Parts

Through the "dip" in the style, insert the Q-tip and roll it between your fingers to gather the pollen on the cotton. Withdraw it carefully. Take the Q-tip with the pollen to the flower you wish to cross (you have unwrapped this flower as well) hold the stem of the flower and touch the Q-tip to the stigma.  Remember this is protruding between the petals, and roll the Q-tip up the stigma lightly.
TransferingPollenRS.jpg

Photo 7 - Transferring Pollen

Be sure to do all 5 stigmas. Each stigma has a tube in which the pollen will grow down to reach the unfertilized embryonic seeds in the ovary. Each chamber in the ovary is capable of holding 100 seeds. Re-bag each flower and repeat the process the next day for three of four times to insure fertilization takes. A sure sign you have been successful is that the petals drop and the whole flower tilts up and the ovary swells.
FertilizedRS.jpg

Photo 8 - Successfully Fertilized Flower

If you want to pollinate a plant that is not in bloom yet, pollen can be saved in the refrigerator on a Q-tip in a plastic bag or wrapped in foil for several weeks until the flower comes into bloom. To "self" a plant, simply take the pollen and apply it to the stigmas. Reportedly, Sarracenias do not "self" very well for some reason but with multiple applications of pollen you should get good seed set. I label the cross by simply wrapping a piece of masking tape on the flower stem with the name of the pollen donor (father). This may have to be replaced once before the seed ripens in the fall. When labeling the plant produced, the pollen receiver is shown first. It is not necessary to wait until the seed capsule breaks open or turns brown to collect the seeds. Seeds are usually fully ripe by mid September.

Now, ain't plant sex grand!?  
smile.gif
 Good growing!

---------------------------------------------
Many thanks to Brooks Garcia for this wonderful instruction article and photos!  Excellent job!
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<span style='color:red'>* DON'T FORGET to record all the data for your pollinations whether between a single species or a cross (hybrid): parentage and location data of each so this can be preserved for the resulting seeds.</span>
 
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Now I know why my sarracenia flowers don't self-pollinate.  Brooks, the article was not only instructive, but illuminating.
 
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Just a side note, I did not bag any of my flowers this spring as I had over 350. I was overwhelmed. I did my crosses on the ones I wanted and left the others to their own devices. Now, having read Don Schnell's book, he states that sarracenias are pollinated by Queen Bumble bees. I have never seen any bees around my plants of any type. I took a chance. The plants I pollinated mostly took. I had a small number fail and I am not sure why. My seeds are starting to ripen now and the plants that I did not cross have a few seeds or none. As I state in the above article, it is possible these few seeds are from self pollination from the wind or the tilt of the flower. I think my neglect proves this partially. It will be a few years before the results of these cross mature enough to be able to tell if they were contaminated in any way. Good growing!
 
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Following a post in the N. A. Pitcher Plants thread about preventing unwanted pollinations, I thought I would throw my two cents in FWIW. I also bag my flowers before the petals open, but with a much easier, albeit more expensive, material-- satchel bags intended for party favors, potpourri, etc. found at craft stores, i.e. Michael's. Last year I lucked out and got them 2 for a dollar. Yesterday they were a buck apiece! The advantages are that the mesh is tightly woven, breathable, and best of all-- easily opened and reclosed with the aid of the drawstrings. I have reused mine for the past 3 years and they show no signs of wear. The only precaution you must exercise, as Brooks has stated, is that wind and rain may weigh down the bagged flower stalk. If the cross is not sheltered from the elements, I would suggest staking to prevent the weight from snapping the flower stalk. Take a look below.

pollination1.jpg


and

pollination2.jpg
 

JBL

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My wife provided a great tip on getting these bags for less than a dollar each.  Go to www.orientaltrading.com.  The item is called 'sheer polyester mesh drawstring gift bags'. item #  SP-3/497.  They are 4 3/4" X 6 1/4" with drawstrings at 12/$7.95!  Aren't wives great??  Even when they think we lost our marbles...She's buying 'Pop Rocks' at the same site, so I guess those who live in glass houses...

Important Update
Looked again at catalog.  The page before had 'Sheer Organza Wedding Gift Bags.  These seem to be pure white, not silver or gold as above item.  They also come in three sizes:

SP-3/459 Small (3 1/2" X 4 3/4") at $4.95/dozen: could be used for smaller flowers like S. rubra complex?

SP-3/458 Medium (4 3/4" X 6 1/4") at $7.95/dozen: S. purpurea species?

SP-3/457 Large (6" X 8") at $9.95/dozen:  for S. flava
 

Est

War. War never changes.
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Crikey and blimey! This is the first time I've seen this topic, only saw it because of the topic reminding us to look at pinned things. Hehe.. Anyway, thanks a TON to Brooks for creating this article, and to PAK for posting it. Sure this'll come in handy. Unless I kill all my plants *cowers at thought of a furious bugweed*
smile_n_32.gif
 
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At home, and you?
thanks for the effort you put into this Brooks, well worth the effort, i know it will come in handy one day or another, and surely everyone that has a sarracenia must read this article.
Thanks a bunch
Steven
 

Est

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I do believe that the picture (along with the article) can be found here. I don't think there were any other pictures....

click this link
 

Not a Number

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There used to be photos with this essay. It looks like they were hosted on an AOL member page. As I recall AOL has recently stopped hosting member pages.
 
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